4k Blu rays are here, and HDR content is slowly trickling out to various streaming sites as well. And theres really no way to get updated on what gets added, so I decided to make a master list, that along with all you guys, we can keep track of what is available and where to get it from. So whenever something new is added, post it up in here, and I'll edit this 1st post to reflect the newly added HDR content! And when something new is added, I will bold it in RED so it's easier to see. -You can also post your expressions and opinions on whether or not something is worth checking out or worth spending your money on, because in the beginning its going to be fairly expensive ($25-$30 per movie, or a subscription based service.) -Regarding UHD BD movies, Feel free to post info though about titles being released if you hear anything, I will add it into the main library when we can actually buy/pre-order them at stores. Fox has already announced that all future releases will be in 4k HDR, looks like sony is going to do the same also as they are starting to release a bunch of remasters in HDR. Lets get this list started, hopefully will be adding more soon!!!
As soon as Netflix or any other streaming site is created, we'll add that too! *****note: you must have a 2015 HDR capable tv/ or a samsung with the sek3500 upgrade in order to decode and display HDR content. How your tv displays the HDR contents is dependent on your tv panels capabilities (dimming, nits, color space size). ****Early HDR grades is basically practice, as they get get more practice, content will be graded more efficiently. Do I have an HDR TV??? This article has a list of currently available HDR tvs NEW 4k UHD BLU RAY Some UHD BD's are redeeming UHD digital codes.
Pineapple Express (Action. Movie Summary Torrent Details How to download. Extras: Trailer, Offline Download.
For now, certain streaming sites are tied to a certain studio. For example: vudu = warner brothers sony= ultra fox = MGO (but does not redeem UHD) I will note next to the UHD BD if there is a UHD redeemable code, but only for titles that are available to purchase now How to Redeem Your Code and Where? Check out this NEW thread for those answers as it can get complicating about where/how to redeem!
NEW For Better Organization, I made the lists into Spoilers, so click the spoiler to see the full lists of each category! Coming Soon/Announced. Dolby Vision (with HDR10 as base layer) -[B] *- The Dark Tower - Westworld - Mother! *FLIGHT OF THE BUTTERFLIES *ROCKY MOUNTAIN EXPRESS 4k Night View Tokyo *Journey to Space HUMPBACK WHALES (narrated by Ewan McGregor), WONDERS OF THE ARCTIC (narrated by Victor Garber) THE LAST REEF: CITIES BENEATH THE SEA. Which movies are coming from true 4K masters? NEW Some of these movies are upscaled from 2k masters, some look good, some are average. For some lists that document the movies/shows from true 4k masters, check these out!
Where to rent uhd discs? It looks like 3d blu ray rental is gonna offer uhd discs too. Prices are 3.99-7.99 or have a plan. Seems like a pretty decent price compared to a full purchase! FandangoNOW (formerly MGO and currently samsung based).
**In order to view the MGO/fandangoNOW movies, you must purchase a vidity enabled hard drive, and then download the movie to the drive. The drive will come with Exodus and Mazerunner part 1 in 4k HDR, these 2 are early grades are not considered to be reference material for HDR.
Movies are 70-90 gigs and take 4-15 hours to download depending on internet speed. Link to purchase W.D. Passport drive: UPDATE DECEMBER 17th, 2015: It appears that MGO/fandagoNOW is now available through the ROKU 4, making it available now to all other tv brands besides samsung. However, because the roku 4 is NOT currently HDR capable, the HDR movies with the vidity spec are not yet available.
An HDR update to the ROKU 4 is still possible says ROKU. Also, if mgo has opened up to roku, it means that MGO could be coming to other tv brands soon via the built in app system on those tvs. Stay tuned for MGO updates on brand expansion! ** to get the best audio that MGO offers, bring up the time stamp while watching the movie, scroll over to the right and click on the globe icon, dolby digital will be activated. Battleship - X-Men: Apocolapsye - The Martian: Extended Cut - Eddie the Eagle - Independence Day 20th anniversary - Deadpool - Joy. - The Revenant - Brooklyn - Alvin and the Chipmunks Road Trip - Victor Frankenstein - Peanuts - The Martian - Hitman: Agent 47 - The Mazerunner 2: Scorch Trails - The Fantastic Four remake - Paper towns - Me and Earl and the Dying Girl - Xmen: Rogue cut - Spy - Poltergeist: Extended cut - The Longest Ride - Wild - Exodus: Gods and Kings - The Maze Runner - Life of Pi - Kingsmen: The Secret Service Amazon Prime Video TV SHOWS see post for how to find the HDR material on amazon All amazon is hdr10, some also are dolby vision, which are noted.
Here is the link for the full VUDU list with additional information about each title. Ghostbusters (2016) The Shallows. The Walk The brothers Grimsby Pride and Predjiduce and zombies Risen The 5th Wave The Amazing Spider-Man 2 Concussion Men In Black 3 Smurfs 2 The Night Before Elysium Hotel Transylvania 2 After Earth Pixels Salt Chappie Annie Fury Pineapple Express Hancock Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Ghostbuster's 2 Men in Black Ghostbuster's Kaleidescape Strato This an external download box.
Movies can be purchased for download. Follow the link for the list of movies! ULTRAFLIX (spring/summer 2016) YOUTUBE As of November 7th, 2016, youtube now carries HDR videos. However, youtube requires VP9 2.0 for HDR, which is only available on SOME 2016 tvs and some external devices. Currenly, only the newest google Chromecast can access YTHDR. Youtube Playlists: NEW NEW What is HDR?
How does HDR improve the picture? Why should you want HDR?
Explained here in a 'reference' article! NEW A very great and detailed article on HDR from back in March 2015 I believe. It is around 16 pages long from a magazine and has comparison pictures from 'Amazing Spiderman 2', 'blacklist' and 'Annie'. Theres an interview where they talk about the differences in 10 bit, 12 bit etc, This is the type of link that you will want to bookmark for future references on HDR. HDR External Streaming Devices - Samsung 4k blu ray player K8500 (amazon HDR) - Nvidia Shield (netflix HDR) - XBOX 1 S (netflix HDR ) - Roku 5 Ultra - Roku 5 PREMIER+ - Pansonic UB900 - chromecast Ultra COMCAST: NEW If you have access to the comcast XFINITY app, they will be offering the opening and closing ceremonies of the RIO OLYMPICS in 4k HDR.
As of right now, only Samsung and LG tvs have access to this app. UPDATE: Amazon finally improves and changes the UI for UHD updated UI from amazon, theyve made it very easy to switch between the diffferent UHD sections. See pictures below! Locate UHD section on main Amazon page. Enter UHD section.
Now you have 4 different sections to choose from. After choosing a section, you can locate if a movie or show is HDR by the HDR icon in the title info as seen here.
Some will say 'vision' for Dolby Vision, or 'HDR' for regular HDR10. The HDR icon is located between the Age rating and SUBTITLE options. To make sure you clicked an HDR movie/show, you can hit PAUSE at any time and there will be an HDR icon near the pause bar as shown in the following picture: (it is common for the resolution on amazon to change from 1080p to UHD throughout your show, as shown in this picture on the time bar) HOW TO FIND HDR CONTENT ON AMAZON. There is a lot of confusion about how to access HDR content on amazon. Amazon around november 20th revamped their UI and IMO for the worse. It now makes it extremely difficult to find the UHD material, and its even more trickier to find the HDR content. If you do not go directly to the UHD section, your tv will play the show in only HD/1080P.
To find the HDR tv shows/movies. Simply scroll all the way down to the bottom of the categories.
There will be a section called 'Ultra HD movies' and 'Ultra HD TV shows'. You MUST go to these specific categories to see any UHD or HDR stuff.
Next, if you want to find the 'HDR Badge' to make sure what you are about to watch is indeed HDR, follow these next directions. **you will NOT see any type of HDR badges during playback, it is only in the movie info** -scroll down to UHD tv section (see picture) -click on tv show -instead of clicking 'watch now', scroll to the left and click on the episode name, this will send you into expanded info.
(highlighted in yellow in picture) -here, you will see the HDR badge right next to 'CC', and '5.1' (see picture) Unfortunately, this is the only way to know if what you are watching on amazon is in HDR. If you do not have an HDR tv, you will not see an HDR badge.
Hopefully amazon in the future will make it easier to find HDR stuff. I decided to bite the bullet on Smurfs 2 on amazon to see how the HDR grade was, ive checked out the 4k version on netflix a few times, so i had an idea of how the regular 4k version looked. The Amazon HDR version EASILY trumps the 4k netflix version. The expanded colors create an entirely different picture with crazy depth to it.
Not to mention, Smurfs2 has one of the best resolution grades so unlike alot of other '4k' films, smurfs 2 actually looks like real 4k and with the HDR grades, creates quite an amazing. Definitely the closest to 'reference quality' as far as 4k HDR that i have seen. Just for fun i did match up a few scenes with some pictures I had previously taken with the 4k version on netflix. I do see HDR becoming a very expensive hobby once the big name titles start to arrive! Have you watched Bosch?
It's a great show. Nah, the HDR on it is really screwed up and I can't even get the regular 4K versions of it, so I'll just wait until it gets sorted out. I checked out the show Z about Zelda fitzgerald last night. The show didn't really tickle my fancy, but oh my god the picture was stunning. Might have been the most impressive 4K video/movie content I've seen to date. You can really see the difference in the shots of the sky where it's bright as hell but not blown out at all. That good girls revolt show is total garbage all around, picture quality looked dull and the show was awful.
When Amazon first came out with HDR I could see a big difference, they have done something to mess it up and now it looks worse than the 4K non-HDR versions. I don't think Amazon HDR is close to what we will see on the HDR Bluray players coming out and hope Netflix does a better job than Amazon. I have a LG oled but before I sold my JS9500 the HDR which looked amazing at first from Amazon, looked horrible just as it does on the OLED. MGO was far superior and is the in thing I miss about owning a Samsung 4K set.
Z: the beginning of Everything looks excellent. Why can't Amazon do the with all HDR offerings?
When Amazon first came out with HDR I could see a big difference, they have done something to mess it up and now it looks worse than the 4K non-HDR versions. I don't think Amazon HDR is close to what we will see on the HDR Bluray players coming out and hope Netflix does a better job than Amazon.
I have a LG oled but before I sold my JS9500 the HDR which looked amazing at first from Amazon, looked horrible just as it does on the OLED. MGO was far superior and is the in thing I miss about owning a Samsung 4K set. Z: the beginning of Everything looks excellent. Why can't Amazon do the with all HDR offerings? You sure its not an issue with how LG has their HDR settings configured? Have you bought any of the amazon movies that are done by sony?
I have i think 4 now, and they are definitely superior to MGO, in both resolution and the HDR color grading. The MGO stuff looks good, but it seems more like really good 1080P than 4k HDR.
Even pineapple express HDR has moments of briliant HDR work that looks awesome. The sony HDR movies have more 'WOW' factor than the tv shows, but the tv shows to me still look pretty good. I 100% agree though that 4k HDR discs are going to be the go-to for visual perfection. When Amazon first came out with HDR I could see a big difference, they have done something to mess it up and now it looks worse than the 4K non-HDR versions. I don't think Amazon HDR is close to what we will see on the HDR Bluray players coming out and hope Netflix does a better job than Amazon. I have a LG oled but before I sold my JS9500 the HDR which looked amazing at first from Amazon, looked horrible just as it does on the OLED. MGO was far superior and is the in thing I miss about owning a Samsung 4K set.
Z: the beginning of Everything looks excellent. Why can't Amazon do the with all HDR offerings? You sure its not an issue with how LG has their HDR settings configured?
Have you bought any of the amazon movies that are done by sony? I have i think 4 now, and they are definitely superior to MGO, in both resolution and the HDR color grading.
The MGO stuff looks good, but it seems more like really good 1080P than 4k HDR. Even pineapple express HDR has moments of briliant HDR work that looks awesome. The sony HDR movies have more 'WOW' factor than the tv shows, but the tv shows to me still look pretty good. I 100% agree though that 4k HDR discs are going to be the go-to for visual perfection.
Considering the mgo stuff is nearing 100 gb in size, its safe to guess that they are probably the same exact files as what will be placed on 4k blu Ray discs given their size limitations. Quality issues are foxs fault since that's all that is on mgo. Incidentally, all the 'wow' stuff is a different studio - Sony. I think there's going to be a wide range of quality of HDR content as studios experiment with grading techniques and styles, especially here at the beginning. And of course it's also worth remembering that like 90% of content out there was mastered at 2K.
Hell, Jurassic world had a DI of 2k so there will never be a 4k version of it. Sony stuff has the benefit of the company moving to a 4k pipeline years ago, so their content looking better is probably the result of good foresight and more experience with the new tech. Considering the mgo stuff is nearing 100 gb in size, its safe to guess that they are probably the same exact files as what will be placed on 4k blu Ray discs given their size limitations. Somebody just 2 days ago posted in one of the HDR threads in the news section that they were able to take those files and completely break them down on their computer, they posted a screen shot and apparently the file contains a 4k version, a 1080P version, a 720p version and a SD version.
It also breaks down the sizes of each, and apparently the 4k hdr version of mazerunner ( i think that was the example), is actually only 35G. Quality issues are foxs fault since that's all that is on mgo. Incidentally, all the 'wow' stuff is a different studio - Sony. I think there's going to be a wide range of quality of HDR content as studios experiment with grading techniques and styles, especially here at the beginning. And of course it's also worth remembering that like 90% of content out there was mastered at 2K. Hell, Jurassic world had a DI of 2k so there will never be a 4k version of it.
Sony stuff has the benefit of the company moving to a 4k pipeline years ago, so their content looking better is probably the result of good foresight and more experience with the new tech i agree, fox is not doing a good job and SONY seems to know what they are doing. I prefer the quality of all the sony HDR stuff ive seen.
Tom Roper's HDR video is better than MGO! I actually seen alot of similarities between Toms video and After Earth HDR (sony). That's really interesting about the mgo stuff having multiple files. Seems a little ridiculous and unnecessary so I'm not quite sure what the deal is with that. Nevertheless, 35 gb for a 4k movie is still bigger than the amazon movies with their relatively low bitrates (and better quality at that), so I'd still say fox and not mgo is to blame. Also I think exodus might be the only movie on mgo that is true 4k.
The rest are 2k DIs that will never be in 4k. Fox doesnt produce great movies anyways. So its a good thing that sony (who does produce good movies) is very good at the entire HDR process.
Hopefully the other studios (paramount, universal, disney) are in sonys league and not foxs' league.
Zipped files are difficult to crack, though it can be done but it takes way too much time. I suggest you stop downloading passworded files, since they are fake most of the tim e.
The best places to look for torrents are: - isohunt.com - demonoid.com - piratebay.org As for 'Eagle Eye', you can get that torrent here: OR You can get an invite to almost all torrent sites here: . What is torrent?
The movie is about a women name gorgina Spencer who was just a normal,fun-loving girl with tons of friends and a guy friend name Charles grey, who has feelings for her. Until her mother place a marriage for her with the duke of denvershore,William.
This normal girl in the 1700's became the duchess of denvershore. The duke wanted a son very soon.
After a wine party,gorgina finds out the duke sleeps with different women. 7 months later the duchess was going to have the first child.until charlotte came,her mother died,so gorgina is going take care of her like a daughter. 2 months later during a wine party gorgina goes in too labor.with a baby girl. 6 years later. Gorgina had anthor girl. She named them harryo and lil'g she had no sons when gorgina went to bath she met a women name Beth,who went back too London with them after her divoce. They become best friends.
After a speech from Charles grey gorgina finds out that the duke was having a affiar. She runs back home too tell her mama what happens.
Gorgina finds out that Beth had three boys. When she saw Charles grey by a lake.she tells him everything.
Soon,they both kiss and gorgina finds out that she loves Charles more than the duke,because she never loved the duke,she did not want to marry him,her mother made gorgina marry him. When she told her feelings for Charles grey to her husband, the duke goes after her. 9 months later.
They had a boy when the duke goes away to go celebrate that he has a son name William jr.,the duchess has a wine party to celebrate that she finally has a son. She told the duke that she will go to bath,she was really lying so she can go to see Charles grey to have a affiar. When she comes back. The duke and her mother finds out.
Gorgina told the duke that she never loved him,she said that he was using her to have a son. Gorgina tells at her mother that she nevered wanted to marry the duke. Gorgina told her that she wanted to marry Charles grey. The duke told gorgina that he loved her. The duke takes gorgina kids away until she stops seeing mr.grey gorgina nevered saw Charles ever again. Gorgina finally got her kids back gorgina told Charles that she does not love him no more. Gorgina tells the duke and Beth that she is carrying Charles grey kid.
She goes to the country side to have the baby. Beth went with her to make feel better. 9 months later. Gorgina has a baby girl. She tells the grey family that she was sorry and wants the baby girl back.
They told gorgina that she was not carrying the duke's baby. They begin to leave. Gorgina goes after them. Lady Beth stops her.
When gorgina came back home the duke apologizes to her what he did and he is going to throw a party for her. Things go back to normal. Charles grey apologizes for what he did and said the family is taking very good care of the baby.Charles told her that he marring a women name eliza and would be great that gorgina would meet her. Gorgina life was back to normal gorgina lives with Beth,her 4 kids,her husband,beths kids,and the 2 dogs. Gorgina meet eliza secretly they all lived until gorgina's death. Beth became the duchess. Eliza named her daughter gorgina.
This password system is a Fake try! Don't Download movies containing Passwords or only the.avi because, some programs like PlayVix, VidXPlayer, MovieXPlayer, and Xpl ayer Avoid to download any of these players, These are scam programs and video files that are asking you to install these players are fake. Download torrents from the verified sites like H33T, ahashare, 1337x and so on and also, stick with the Verified quick Uploaders like MXMG,FXG,MAXSPEED to download high Quality movies. MXMG is a new movie ripper and has earned a Good rank among the uploaders as his dowloads are held in servers.
Browse and Read Motor Driver L293d Circuit Motor Driver L293d Circuit It sounds good when knowing the motor driver l293d circuit in this website. Order STMicroelectronics L293D (497-2936-5-ND) at DigiKey. Check stock and pricing, view product specifications, and order online. IC MOTOR DRIVER PAR 16-DIP.
The L293D is a Monolithic Integrated, High Voltage, High Current, 4-Channel Driver module. Basically you can use DC Motors and Power Supplies of up To 36 Volts, That’s Some Pretty Big Motors and the chip can supply a maximum current Of 600Ma Per Channel, The L293D Chip Is Also What’s known as a type of H-bridge. Features of L293D Motor Shield Arduino Compatible: • Interface For 5V Servo connected To Arduino. • Sturdy built Quality.
Applications of L293D Motor Shield Arduino Compatible: • It is used in Robotics projects requiring stepper motor interface. • Multiple DIY projects. Note: Images shown is only for representation. The actual product may vary with the picture shown.Also Searched as: l293d motor driver module, l293d motor driver working, l293d motor driver pdf, l293d motor driver specifications, l293d motor driver circuit, l293d motor controller, l293d motor driver ic pdf, l293d motor driver.
What Is Motor Driver IC? A motor driver IC is an integrated circuit chip which is usually used to control motors in autonomous robots.
Motor driver ICs act as an interface between microprocessors in robots and the motors in the robot. The most commonly used motor driver IC’s are from the L293 series such as L293D, L293NE, etc. These ICs are designed to control 2 DC motors simultaneously. L293D consist of two H-bridge.
H-bridge is the simplest circuit for controlling a low current rated motor. For this tutorial we will be referring the motor driver IC as L293D only. L293D has 16 pins, they are comprised as follows: Ground Pins - 4 Input Pins - 4 Output Pins - 4 Enable pins - 2 Voltage Pins - 2 The workings of the individual pins are explained in detail, later in the tutorial. Why We Need Motor Driver IC?
Motor Driver ICs are primarily used in autonomous robotics only. Also most microprocessors operate at low voltages and require a small amount of current to operate while the motors require a relatively higher voltages and current. Thus current cannot be supplied to the motors from the microprocessor. This is the primary need for the motor driver IC. How Motor Driver Operates?
The L293D IC receives signals from the microprocessor and transmits the relative signal to the motors. It has two voltage pins, one of which is used to draw current for the working of the L293D and the other is used to apply voltage to the motors. The L293D switches it output signal according to the input received from the microprocessor. For Example: If the microprocessor sends a 1(digital high) to the Input Pin of L293D, then the L293D transmits a 1(digital high) to the motor from its Output Pin.
An important thing to note is that the L293D simply transmits the signal it receives. It does not change the signal in any case. L293D And Its Working The L293D is a 16 pin IC, with eight pins, on each side, dedicated to the controlling of a motor.
There are 2 INPUT pins, 2 OUTPUT pins and 1 ENABLE pin for each motor. L293D consist of two H-bridge. H-bridge is the simplest circuit for controlling a low current rated motor. The Theory for working of a H-bridge is given below.
Working Of A H-bridge H-bridge is given this name because it can be modelled as four switches on the corners of ‘H’. The basic diagram of H-bridge is given below: In the given diagram, the arrow on the left points to the higher potential side of the input voltage of the circuit. Now if the switches S1 & S4 are kept in a closed position while the switches S2 & S3 are kept in a open position meaning that the circuit gets shorted across the switches S1 & S4. This creates a path for the current to flow, starting from the V input to switch S1 to the motor, then to switch S4 and then the exiting from the circuit. This flow of the current would make the motor turn in one direction. The direction of motion of the motor can be clockwise or anti-clockwise, this is because the rotation of the motor depends upon the connection of the terminals of the motor with the switches. For simplicity, lets assume that in this condition the motor rotates in a clockwise direction.
Now, when S3 and S2 are closed then and S1 and S4 are kept open then the current flows from the other direction and the motor will now definitely rotates in counter-clockwise direction When S1 and S3 are closed and S2 and S4 are open then the ‘STALL’ condition will occur(The motor will break). Stall Condition: When the motor is applied positive voltage on both sides then the voltage from both the sides brings the motor shaft to a halt L293D Pin Diagram: In the above diagram we can see that, Pin No. Pin Characteristics 1 Enable 1-2, when this is HIGH the left part of the IC will work and when it is low the left part won’t work.
So, this is the Master Control pin for the left part of IC 2 INPUT 1, when this pin is HIGH the current will flow though output 1 3 OUTPUT 1, this pin should be connected to one of the terminal of motor 4,5 GND, ground pins 6 OUTPUT 2, this pin should be connected to one of the terminal of motor 7 INPUT 2, when this pin is HIGH the current will flow though output 2 8 VC, this is the voltage which will be supplied to the motor. So, if you are driving 12 V DC motors then make sure that this pin is supplied with 12 V 16 VSS, this is the power source to the IC.
So, this pin should be supplied with 5 V 15 INPUT 4, when this pin is HIGH the current will flow though output 4 14 OUTPUT 4, this pin should be connected to one of the terminal of motor 13,12 GND, ground pins 11 OUTPUT 3, this pin should be connected to one of the terminal of motor 10 INPUT 3, when this pin is HIGH the current will flow though output 3 9 Enable 3-4, when this is HIGH the right part of the IC will work and when it is low the right part won’t work. So, this is the Master Control pin for the right part of IC Soldering On A PCB Given below is the circuit diagram for how the IC needs to be soldered on a PCB with the connectors. From a six pin relimate INPUT 2, INPUT 1, ENABLE 1-2,ENABLE 3-4,INPUT 3 and INPUT 4 are given. The inputs to the DC motors are to be given through a two pin relimates whose connectors is shown in the left and right side of the figure. Working Mechanism Now depending upon the values of the Input and Enable the motors will rotate in either clockwise or anticlockwise direction with full speed (when Enable is HIGH) or with less speed (when Enable is provided with PWM). Let us assume for Left Motor when Enable is HIGH and Input 1 and Input 2 are HIGH and LOW respectively then the motor will move in clockwise direction.
So the behaviour of the motor depending on the input conditions will be as follows: INPUT 1 INPUT 2 ENABLE 1,2 Result 0 0 1 Stop 0 1 1 Anti-clockwise rotation 1 0 1 Clockwise rotation 1 1 1 Stop 0 1 50% duty cycle Anti-clockwise rotation with half speed 1 0 50% duty cycle Clockwise rotation with half speed Why 4 grounds in the IC? The motor driver IC deals with heavy currents. Due to so much current flow the IC gets heated.
So, we need a heat sink to reduce the heating. Therefore, there are 4 ground pins. When we solder the pins on PCB, we get a huge metalllic area between the grounds where the heat can be released. Why Capacitors? The DC motor is an inductive load. So, it develops a back EMF when supplied by a voltage.
There can be fluctuations of voltage while using the motor say when suddenly we take a reverse while the motor was moving in some direction. At this point the fluctuation in voltage is quite high and this can damage the IC. Thus, we use four capacitors that help to dampen the extreme variation in current.
Kali ini ada download kumpulan game layar sentuh / Touchscreen JAVA Games 240x320 Terbaik yang bisa kamu download disini secara gratis.untuk hp kamu yang bersistem operasi java dengan resolusi 240 x 320 dan dibawah ini adalah beberapa pilihan dari beberapa voting para pecinta game hp layar sentuh.
Hai sobat semua, kali ini admin infosaged akan menjelaskan cara merubah wallpaper di android dimana tutorial ini saya buat untuk android pemula yang mungkin tidak tahu cara merubah tema wallpaper android baik live wallpaper ataupun wallpaper biasa dari photo / gambar atau misalkan ada sobat yang habis download live wallpaper namun tidak tahu cara settingnya. Sebenarnya merubah wallpaper pada layar android itu mudah sekali karena biasanya setiap merek hp android menggunakan 2 metode pengaturan yaitu pengaturan cepat (langsung pada layar android) dan menu pengaturan / setting dimana keduanya memiliki fungsi yang sama.
Download Game PC / komputer gratis: game hp layar sentuh.
Realtek AC'97 6305, EN. Manage your sound with the Realtek Driver. Description: This download contains AC97 Driver and control panel for C-Media 9738 Sound cards or onboard chips. The setup program will install version 5. Onto most Windows systems. The driver features multi-speaker surround sound and the ability to set your sound card controls, input and output jacks.
Your privacy is a priority at Cmedia, and we go to great lengths to protect it. There are a number of situations in which your personal information may help us give you better service. For example, we may ask for your personal information when you’re discussing a service issue on the phone with an associate, downloading a software update, registering for a seminar, participating in an online survey, registering your products, or purchasing a product. At such times, we may collect personal information relevant to the situation, such as your name, mailing address, phone number, email address, and contact preferences; your credit card information and information about the Cmedia products you own, such as their serial numbers, and date of purchase; and information relating to a support or service issue. We collect information for market research purposes, such as your occupation and where you use your computer, to gain a better understanding of our customers and thus provide more valuable service. We also collect information regarding customer activities on our website, and on related websites.
There are also times when it may be advantageous for Cmedia to make certain personal information about you available to companies that Cmedia has a strategic relationship with or that perform work for Cmedia to provide products and services to you on our behalf. These companies may help us process information, extend credit, fulfill customer orders, deliver products to you, manage and enhance customer data, provide customer service, assess your interest in our products and services, or conduct customer research or satisfaction surveys. These companies are also obligated to protect your personal information in accordance with Cmedia’s policies. Without such information being made available, it would be difficult for you to purchase products, have products delivered to you, receive customer service, provide us feedback to improve our products and services, or access certain services, offers, and content on the Cmedia website. At times we may be required by law or litigation to disclose your personal information. We may also disclose information about you if we determine that for national security, law enforcement, or other issues of public importance, disclosure is necessary.
Cmedia takes precautions, including administrative, technical, and physical measures, to safeguard your personal information against loss, theft, and misuse, as well as unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration, and destruction. You can help us by also taking precautions to protect your personal data when you are on the Internet. Change your passwords often using a combination of letters and numbers, and keep them confidential.
Please note that certain features of the Cmedia website will not be available once cookies are disabled. As is true of most web sites, we gather certain information automatically and store it in log files. This information includes internet protocol (IP) addresses, browser type, internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp, and clickstream data. We use this information, which does not identify individual users, to analyze trends, to administer the site, to track users movements around the site and to gather demographic information about our user base as a whole.
Cmedia will not use the information collected to market directly to that person. In some of our email messages we use a lick-through URL linked to content on the Cmedia website.
When a customer clicks one of these URLs, they pass through our web server before arriving at the destination web page. We track this click-through data to help us determine interest in particular topics and measure the effectiveness of our customer communications.
If you do not want Cmedia to keep you up to date with Cmedia news, software updates and latest information on products and services, click the 'unsubscribe' link that is included in the email sent. Naturally, if you notify us that you do not want us to use your information for a particular purpose, we will not do so.
All contents of this website, including, but not limited to text, illustrations, photographs, sound files, animation files, video files, icons, interfaces and layouts or other such arrangements are the copyrighted property of Cmedia Electronics Inc. Or have been licensed from the copyright owner for use on this site and may not be used for any purpose whatsoever without our express written permission. Such permission is automatically granted to Authorized Layton Electronics and Networking Limited Dealers and their authorized agents only subject to the Terms and Conditions of our Authorized Dealer/Affiliate Agreement(s). Any unauthorized use of the content of the website by any other party will violate various copyright laws, trademark laws, the laws of privacy and publicity, and civil and criminal statutes.
A3: There are two major components for AC'97 sound cards: AC'97 CODEC and audio controller. Realtek is an AC'97 CODEC manufacturer. The most important part of an AC'97 sound card is the audio controller in the chipsets, provided by the chipset vendor. The integrated sound chip doesn't usually have SB compatible hardware to support DOS games directly.
We implement an SB emulation in the DOS prompt of Windows OSes instead. If you want to run a DOS game, please run it in the DOS Box of Windows. It can support almost 90% of popular DOS games. Please type 'set' in DOS box to check what resources you should set for your DOS programs.
The resources will be shown as 'BLASTER=Axxx Dx Ix Pxxx'. The compatibility between a DOS driver and a SB emulation in DOS Box of Windows is almost the same because of lack of hardware support.
Sorry for the inconvenience caused. A3: There are two major components for AC'97 sound cards: AC'97 CODEC and audio controller.
Realtek is an AC'97 CODEC manufacturer. The most important part of an AC'97 sound card is the audio controller in the chipsets, provided by the chipset vendor. The integrated sound chip doesn't usually have SB compatible hardware to support DOS games directly. We implement an SB emulation in the DOS prompt of Windows OSes instead. If you want to run a DOS game, please run it in the DOS Box of Windows. It can support almost 90% of popular DOS games. Please type 'set' in DOS box to check what resources you should set for your DOS programs.
The resources will be shown as 'BLASTER=Axxx Dx Ix Pxxx'. The compatibility between a DOS driver and a SB emulation in DOS Box of Windows is almost the same because of lack of hardware support. Sorry for the inconvenience caused. • Q4: I am using Windows 98 4.10.1998.
When installing drivers for win 95/98, I have delay in sounds in games like FIFA 2001. With the win 98 SE drivers all is OK. Why the drivers for win 98 are different from the drivers for win 98SE? The SPIDF would be in the 'device manager'? Why my Power DVD doesn't recognize the SPDIF output?
The SPDIF output is in communication with the Realtek chip? A4: We offer two different types of audio drivers for MS Windows OSes. The WDM driver is for Win98SE or later versions and the VXD driver is for Win98/95.
Recommended by MS, the WDM driver had better not be used on Win98. That is why we normally use the VXD driver for Win98 (4.10.1998). If you don't encounter any problems using the WDM driver with Win98, you can keep on with it. For some reasons, we do not support DirectSound directly in the VXD driver. We just have the DirectSound software emulation layer do it for us. I think that is why you have delay in sounds in DirectSound games.
We suggest you to upgrade your OS to Win98SE or later versions. Our WDM driver has more powerful features, such as EAX support, and it will support DirectSound better than the VXD driver. Our AC'97 CODECs support the SPDIF function on P4B with the WDM driver.
With limitation of the MS kernel driver, the Win98SE cannot support SPDIF with AC-3 format without MS QFE269601 installed on Win98SE. If you want to play AC-3 format under Win98SE, QFE269601 should be installed.
If you want to play AC-3 format under Win2000, service pack 2 should be installed. WinMe and WinXP can support AC-3 format without any patch files from MS. For Wave (PCM) format, all Windows OSes can be played with the WDM driver.• Q5: Will your AC'97 audio CODECs support non-Windows XX or Windows 3.X operating systems, e.g., Solaris, Linux, BSD, etc. In the future? Do you plan to release information regarding implementation, hardware specifications, etc.? A5: We support the Linux driver and you can download it at our web site:.
For the others, we don't have plans to support them now. In fact, the AC'97 audio CODEC is a standard CODEC for audio controllers. The most important part is the audio controller which is provided by SouthBridge chipset vendors. We are an AC'97 audio CODEC vendor, not a SouthBridge chipset vendor. AC'97 audio CODEC drivers are varied for different audio controllers. But if the audio controller is the same, the same drivers can be used for most AC'97 audio CODECs. If you can find drivers for your audio controller for the other OSes, they can usually be used with Realtek AC'97 CODECs.
A5: We support the Linux driver and you can download it at our web site:. For the others, we don't have plans to support them now. In fact, the AC'97 audio CODEC is a standard CODEC for audio controllers.
The most important part is the audio controller which is provided by SouthBridge chipset vendors. We are an AC'97 audio CODEC vendor, not a SouthBridge chipset vendor. AC'97 audio CODEC drivers are varied for different audio controllers.
But if the audio controller is the same, the same drivers can be used for most AC'97 audio CODECs. If you can find drivers for your audio controller for the other OSes, they can usually be used with Realtek AC'97 CODECs.
• Q6: When I ran the Microsoft DirectX Diagnostic tool (Dxdiag.exe) sound test on a computer with Realtek audio driver (Windows Driver Model) installed, the test did not run properly, and the operating system showed the following message: 'Your sound card does not support hardware buffering. Sound will only playback from software buffers.'
What does this mean? A6: The message meant that your audio system doesn't support 22050Hz sampling rate. The kernel mixer of Windows operating system will transfer the sampling rate to one supported. It will not affect any playback or recording. Please visit for detailed information.• Q7: I've set the AC'97 audio configuration utility to 4-channel mode and when I tested the speaker, the rear worked, but when I wanted to listen to some audio (mp3), only the front speakers worked properly, the rear speakers didn't work well and with a lot of noises.
We have seen Android being ported to WinMob devices like Xperia X1 and Nokia N900 Meamo phone but Android port on iPhone, no one ever thought of it. Yes, dev team member & iPhone hacker has successfully ported Android to iPhone 3G which he says “It should be pretty simple to port forward to the iPhone 3G. The 3GS will take more work”, on his blog.
Back in 2008 planetbeing has done the job of reverse engineering Apple’s hardware drive and he was the guy who had successfully ported Linux kernel 2.6 to Apple iPhone. You can now dual boot & run android 1.6 donut on iPhone. Android on iPhone 2G works pretty smooth without any hiccups and pre-build image of Android for iPhone 2G is already available for download. Android on iPhone 3G Video. Update: Sorry the video shows android on iPhone 2G, not iPhone 3G.
On this page you will find info about how to install iOS on Android. After you downloaded the iOS on Android software, you have to connect your Android.
File size: 1297 Kb Version: 2.7 Date added: 16 Jan 2017 Price: Free Operating systems: Windows XP/Vista/7/8/10 MacOS Downloads: 4711 Winrunner testing tool free download for recognazation of objects and windows in our application by winrunner is called learning. Winrunner run free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 on in our application by winrunner is called learning.
But still may not be robust enough to meet xp's acceptance testing. Used windows seriously. An optimal balance between test tool (i.e.
Quicktest professional 9.1 quicktest professional 9.1 supports microsoft internet explorer 7.0 beta 3 complete technical acronyms, glossary & definitions for free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 pc, san, nas, qa, testing, hdtv, wireless, linux, embedded, free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 networks, video, digital, pharma, unix, video. So here is a quick post to share an online. Winrunner software testing tool free download shareware and freeware downloads by bobsky, freesimpleshop.com, download 2. Download32 is source for free winrunner testing tool shareware, freeware download – w32/blocker free trojan removal tool,. Free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 network stress testing free download,network stress testing software collection download. Does quicktest professional support internet explorer 7.0? Featured testing automation free downloads and eventcorder 2.0 eventcorder is a testing automation, gui testing, automated software testing, testing tool.
Now we will see some more details about web application testing. What is application lifecycle management (alm) suites, how it. Automated software testing ebook download, automated software testing tools, software of video downloader, foundations of photography black and white download. Winrunner 7.0 follows. Qpack free testing tool test management free. 0 follows auto. Winrunner ® 7.0 tutorial.
What is application lifecycle management (alm) suites, how it. Free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 free download links MediaFire.com ThePirateBay.org Softonic.com Drive.Google.com 4Shared ZippyShare How to download and install: Free download winrunner testing tool 7.0? Featured testing automation free downloads and eventcorder 2.0 eventcorder is a testing automation, free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 gui testing, automated software testing, testing tool. Now we will see some more details free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 about web application testing. In my previous post i have outlined points to be considered while testing web applications.
Winrunner is one of the popular tool used in software testing. Winrunner ® 7.0 tutorial.
May 18, 2017 cv for beauty free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 therapist free download. Testing tool: qpack free testing tool test management free. Os: email testing free download,email testing software collection download. Pls send me the testing tools faqs and free tutorials how do i download the mercury interactive testing tools between winrunner 7.0 and winrunner 8. Free winrunner testing tool. Lately i free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 am getting too many requests to share any book on software testing for preparing software testing interviews.
Hp winrunner 9 2 software hp0 m12 software – free download hp winrunner 9 2 software hp0 m12 – page 6 – top 4 download – top4download.com offers free. Gui testing tools serve the purpose of automating the testing process of software with graphical user interfaces this article is the part software testing question and answer series. Find the best application lifecycle management (alm) suites in the industry. Free download winrunner testing tool 7.0: User’s review: Btt – broadbit ttcn testing tool 1.4 license: phone 1.0. Download32 is source for free winrunner testing tool shareware, freeware download – w32/blocker free trojan removal tool,. What is application lifecycle management (alm) suites, how it.
Lately i am getting too many requests to share any free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 book on software testing for preparing free download winrunner testing tool 7.0 software testing interviews. Here is a list of commonly asked interview questions about winrunner. Winrunner ® 7.0 tutorial.
The winrunner testing process consists of 6 main phases. Testing tool: in my previous post i have outlined points to be considered while testing web applications. This up-to-date page contains support matrix with a list of all technologies supported by uft(qtp). Phone line testing software free download in title: winrunner testing tool free download winrunner free download winrunner testing tool 7.0. Raidcall 7.3.0 or music effects keyboard testing software free download free download winrunner testing tool. Likewise winrunner 8.0 is to have the testing tool of choice.
Soniye hiriye teri yaad aandi hai Download ' at MadRingtones.org Here's the code to insert into your page: soniye hiriye teri yaad aandi haiDownload 'soniye hiriye teri yaad aandi hai' at MadRingtones.org 'soniye hiriye teri yaad aandi hai' YouTube video: Ringtones created from this one.
Free soniye hiriye teri yaad aandi hai Ringtone Download. Mp3, amr, ogg, m4r / nokia, iphone, sony erricson, motorola. Latest Soniye Hiriye Teri Yaad Aandi Hai Shael Free Mp3 Download Mp3 Songs Free Download 3GP,MP4 Song And Play Soniye Hiriye Teri Yaad Aandi Hai Shael Free Mp3 Download.
Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Early life [ ] Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born in a Punjabi family in, of the, on 12 August 1924 as the second child of Muhammad Akbar, who worked as a in the of of in and Simla, prior to the of from British colonial rule in 1947. Most accounts confirm that Zia-ul-Haq came from a religious family and religion played an important part in molding his personality.
His father was known as 'Maulvi' Akbar Ali due to his religious devotion. He completed his initial education in and then attended of the for his degree in History, which he graduated with highest marks in the college in 1943. Prior to his graduation, Zia joined the in 1943. [ ] During his collegiate years, he was noted as an extraordinary talent. Zia-ul-Haq occasionally offended his British superiors with his refusal to give up religious and cultural traditions.
Zia-ul-Haq attributed his personal resistance to the lifestyle of the British Indian cavalry to his faith in 'God and his teachings.' ' He married Shafiq Jahan in 1950. Begum Shafiq Zia died on 6 January 1996.
Zia is survived by his sons,, (born 1953), who went into politics and became a cabinet minister in the government of, and Anwar-ul-Haq (born 1960) and his daughters, Zain (born 1972), a special needs child, Rubina Saleem, who is married to a Pakistani banker and has been living in the United States since 1980, and Quratulain Zia who currently lives in London, and is married to Pakistani doctor, Adnan Majid. Military service [ ] Zia was commissioned in the in the on 12 May 1943 after graduating from the Officer Training School Mhow and fought against forces in in. After Pakistan gained its through a in 1947, Zia joined the newly formed as a in the. He also served in and. He was trained in the during 1962–1964 at the at,.
After that, he returned to take over as Directing Staff (DS) at,. During the, Zia is said to have been the Assistant of the 101st Infantry Brigade.
In 1966 Zia took over command of 22 Cavalry and later was Col Staff of 1st Armoured Division. He was stationed in from 1969 to 1970 as a, helping in the training of Jordanian soldiers, as well as leading them into battle during the operations against the as commander of Jordanian 2nd Division, a strategy that proved crucial to 's remaining in power in Jordan. In 1972 he took over command of 9 Armoured Brigade, 6th Armoured Division By 1973, then Zia was commanding the 1st Armoured Division. He was then promoted as and was appointed commander of the at Multan in 1975.
Bangladesh An Untold Story By Sharif Ul Haq Pdf File. It is a play on the word p Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born in a Punjabi Arain.
It was during this time that Zia invited Prime Minister as the of the Armoured Corps at Multan, using his tailor to stitch the Blue Patrols of his size. The next day, Bhutto was requested to climb a tank and engage a target, where the target was quite obviously hit. After the function, Zia met Bhutto and expressed his loyalty to him.
On 1 March 1976, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto approved then-three star rank general Zia as Chief of Army Staff and to be elevated to four-star rank. This promotion was ahead of a number of more senior officers. This promotion was highly controversial but had political motives for Bhutto, who saw Zia as firmly religious and an apolitical military figure who had distaste of politics.
[ ] This was the same motives and move made by future Prime minister who promoted based on his political ambitious, as Chief of Army Staff, but met the same fate as Bhutto in 1999 (although he was not executed). At the time of his nominating the successor to the outgoing Chief of Army Staff General, the Lieutenant Generals in order of seniority were:,,, Azmat Baksh Awan,, Abdul Majeed Malik,, and Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.
But, Bhutto chose the most junior, superseding seven more senior lieutenant-generals. However, the senior most at that time, Mohammad Shariff, though promoted to General, was made the of the, a constitutional post akin to President. Zia never called Bhutto 'Mr. Prime Minister', instead he called him sir when speaking to him. Planning of coup [ ] Part of on. — General Zia-ul-Haq, statement given to Newsweek, However, Zia's General contradicted Zia's statement when Arif noted that the coup had already been planned, and the senior leadership of had solid information.
Therefore, Arif met with Bhutto on an emergency basis, stressing and urging Bhutto to 'rush negotiations with the opposition'. By Arif's and independent expert's accounts, the talks had not broken down even though the coup was very much in the offing. Zia further argued that Fair Play against Bhutto had been necessitated by the prospect of a civil war that Bhutto had been planning, by distributing weapons to his supporters. However, Arif strongly rejected Zia's remarks on Bhutto, and citing no evidence that weapons were found or recovered at any of the party's election offices, the military junta did not prosecute Bhutto on the charge of planning civil war. Immediately, the Admiral announced his and the navy's strong support for Zia and his military government.
But, the General remains unsupported while the General remains neutral, while he silently expressed his support to Prime minister Zulfikar Bhutto. In 1978, Zia pressured President to appoint General as Chief of Air Staff; and Admiral as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979.
On Zia's recommendation, President Illahi appointed Admiral Mohammad Shariff as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, hence making the Admiral the highest ranking officer and principal military adviser overlooking all of the inter-services, including the Chiefs of Staff of the respected forces. In 1979, the Chiefs of Army, Navy, and the Air Force, including the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff validated the coup as constitutional and legal under the war-torn circumstances, pledging their support to Zia as well. [ ] United States sponsorship [ ]. President and meeting with President Zia-ul-Haq, 1982. The United States, notably the, was an ardent supporter of Zia's military regime and a close ally of Pakistan's conservative-leaning ruling military establishment.
The Reagan administration declared Zia's regime as the 'front line' ally of the United States in the fight against the threat of Communism. American legislators and senior officials most notable were,,,, and the civilian intelligence officers and, and senior US military officials General, and General Herbert M.
Wassom, had been long associated with the Zia military regime where they had made frequent trips to Pakistan advising on expanding the idea of establishment in the political circle of Pakistan. Nominally, the of 's influenced Zia to adopt his idea of Islamic as the primary line of his military government, forcefully enforcing the Islamic and other religious practices in the country. The socialist orientation had greatly alarmed the capitalist forces in Pakistan and as well as brought a clinging bell tolls alarm to the United States who feared the loss of Pakistan as an ally in the cold war. Many of Pakistan's political scientists and historians widely suspected that the riots and coup against Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was orchestrated with help of the US (CIA) and the because United States growing fear of Bhutto's socialist policies which were seen as sympathetic towards the and had built a bridge that allowed Soviet Union to be involved in Pakistan, and had access through Pakistan's warm water port; something that the United States was unable to gain access since the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. Former widely suspected the United States' involvement in bringing down the Bhutto's government, and publicly accused the United States' Government after attending the trial. On the other hand, the United States refused any involvement in Bhutto's fall, and argued that it was Bhutto who had alienated himself over the five years.
While witnessing the dramatic fall of Bhutto, one US diplomat in wrote that: During Bhutto's five years in Pakistan's helm, Bhutto had retained an emotional hold on the poor masses who had voted him overwhelmingly in 1970s general elections. At the same time, however, Bhutto had many enemies. The socialist economics and nationalization of major private industries during his first two years on office had badly upsets the Business circles. An ill-considered decision to take over the wheat-milling, rice-husking, sugar mills, and cotton-gaining, industries in July of 1976 had angered the small business owners and traders. Both leftists—socialists and communists, intellectuals, students, and trade unionists—felt betrayed by Bhutto's shift to centre-right wing conservative economics policies and by his growing collaboration with powerful feudal lords, Pakistan's traditional power brokers.
After 1976, Bhutto's aggressive authoritarian personal style and often high-handed way of dealing with political rivals, dissidents, and opponents had also alienated many. Postponement of elections and call for accountability [ ] After assuming power as Chief Martial Law Administrator, Zia shortly appeared on national television, promising to hold new and neutral within the next 90 days My sole aim is to organise free and fair elections which would be held in October this year.
Soon after the polls, power will be transferred to the elected representatives of the people. I give a solemn assurance that I will not deviate from this schedule. He also stated that the had not been abrogated, but temporarily suspended.
Zia did not trust the civilian institutions and legislators to ensure the country's integrity and sovereignty therefore, in October 1977, he announced the postponement of the electoral plan and decided to start an accountability process for the politicians. On television, Zia strongly defended his decision for postponing the elections and demanded that 'scrutiny of political leaders who had engaged in malpractice in the past'. Thus, the PNA adopted its policy of ' first, elections later'. Zia's policy severely tainted his credibility as many saw the broken promise as malicious. Another motive was that Zia widely suspected that once out of power the size of the Pakistan Peoples Party rallies would swell and better performance in elections was possible.
This led to request for postponement of elections by the right-wing Islamists as well as left-wing socialists, formerly allied with Bhutto, which displaced Bhutto in the first place. Zia dispatched an intelligence unit, known as ISI's Political Wing, sending Brigadier-General Taffazul Hussain Siddiqiui, to Bhutto's native Province,, to assess whether people would accept martial law. The Political Wing also contacted the several right-wing Islamists and conservatives, promising an election, with PNA power-sharing the government with Zia. Zia successfully divided and separated the secular forces from right-wing Islamists and conservatives, and later purged each member of the secular front. A Disqualification Tribunal was formed, and several individuals who had been members of parliament were charged with and disqualified from participating in politics at any level for the next seven years. A document was issued, incriminating the deposed Bhutto government on several counts. It is reported by senior officers that when Zia met federal secretaries for the first time as leader of the country after martial law, he said that 'He does not possess the charisma of Bhutto, personality of or the legitimacy of ' thereby implying how can he be marketed.
Reign as Chief Martial Law Administrator [ ] After deposing Prime Minister Bhutto on 5 July 1977, Zia-ul-Haq declared martial law, and appointed himself Chief Martial Law Administrator, which he remained until becoming president on 16 September 1978. The Doctrine of Necessity [ ].
Main article:, the wife of the deposed Prime Minister, filed a suit against Zia's, challenging the validity of the July 1977 military coup. The ruled, in what would later be known as the Doctrine of Necessity (not to be confused with the 1954 ) that, given the dangerously unstable political situation of the time, Zia's overthrowing of the Bhutto government was legal on the grounds of. The judgement tightened the general's hold on the government.
When Bhutto appeared personally to argue his appeal in the supreme court, he almost affirmed his concurrence with the judges present for not letting off a judgement without imposing some conditions on ruling military government. [ ] Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Trial [ ] Former elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was arrested during the coup but released shortly afterwards. Upon his release, Bhutto travelled the country amid adulatory crowds of PPP supporters. On 3 September 1977, he was arrested again by the Army on charges of authorising the murder of a political opponent in March 1974. The trial proceedings began 24 October 1977 and lasted five months. On 18 March 1978, Bhutto was declared guilty of murder and was sentenced to death.
In the words of and, Zia hated Bhutto and had used inappropriate language and insults to describe Bhutto and his colleagues. [ ] The Supreme Court ruled four to three in favour of execution. The High Court had given him the death sentence on charges of the murder of the father of Ahmed Raza Kasuri, a dissident PPP politician. Despite many appeals from foreign leaders requesting Zia to Bhutto's death sentence, Zia dismissed the appeals and upheld the death sentence. On 4 April 1979, Bhutto was hanged, after the Supreme Court upheld the as passed by the. The hanging of an elected prime minister by a military was condemned by the international community and by lawyers and jurists across Pakistan.
Bhutto's trial was highly controversial. Bhutto's last personal appearance and utterances in the supreme court were not merely a long defence of his conduct; he also made some matters clear. He mentioned the words of 'heir' for his son 'Mir Murtaza Bhutto'. He made some remark which indicated that he has views similar to a Sunni, though he was Shia albeit a non-practicing one. He also effectively cast doubt on the reliability of star witnesses against him i.e. Masood Mahmood who was a UK-trained lawyer and not merely a police officer and FSF chief.
He mentioned repeatedly Lahori Ahmedi connection of Masood Mahmood in his testimony. He repeatedly brought the subject of his maltreatment in the death cell. Bhutto made it abundantly clear, even though indirectly that he wanted either freedom or death, not some thing in between, and appreciated Khar and his lawyer Yahya Bakhtiar. [ ] Appointment of Martial Law Administrators [ ] Martial law judges [ ]. Main article: The Ad hoc appointments of at the of Pakistan was one of the earliest and major steps were taken out by the military government under General Zia-ul-Haq. Zia had recognised the fact that since, Bhutto had good equations with the governments of the,, and all the important, excluding the.
Still, it was a formidable array of sovereigns, presidents and prime ministers and the PPP can be forgiven for making a massive political miscalculations. After calling for martial law, Zia pressured President to appoint Justice to on 23 September 1977. Immediately, chief justice was forcefully removed from the office after the latter agreed to re-hear the petition filed at the supreme court by the peoples party's chairwoman on 20 September 1977. After Justice Yaqub Ali's removal, Bhutto objected to the inclusion of the new Chief Justice, Sheikh Anwar-ul-Haq, as a chief justice of the Bench on the grounds that by accepting the office of acting president during the absence of Zia-ul-Haq from the country, he had compromised his impartial status.
Bhutto also stated that the Chief Justice in his public statements had been critical of his government in the recent past. The objection was over-ruled by the Chief Justice Anwarul Haq, and the case of Bhutto was again heard by the Chief Justice Anwar-ul-Haq as the bench's lead judge, and presided the whole case of while forcing the martial law throughout. Shortly, after Zia's return, another judge also gained Zia and Anwar-ul-Haq's support and elevated as the ad hoc Chief Justice of; he was too part of the bench who retained the death sentence of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto even though Bhutto was not declared guilty of the murder of the political opponent. In 1979, when Zia departed for, Justice Haq served as interim president of Pakistan. Martial law governors [ ]. Zia presenting the to. The Zia regime largely made use of installing high-profile military generals to carte blanche provincial administration under martial law.
Zia's Guides Cavalry comrade and foul-mouth Lieutenant-General was appointed Martial Law Administrator of. Lieutenant-General Fazle Haque was considered a strong vocal General and a strong man. General Haque was the commander of the, and commanding-general officer of the Army elements responsible for fighting a secret war against Soviet Union. The second appointment was of Lieutenant-General S.M.
Abbasi who was appointed of; his tenure too saw civil disorder amid student riots. By contrast, third martial law administrator appointment of Lieutenant-General Ghulam Jilani Khan to the Punjab Province made much headway in beautifying Lahore extending infrastructure, and muting political opposition. The ascent of to was largely due to General Jilani's sponsorship.
Perhaps most crucially, final and fourth martial law administrator appointment was then-Lieutenant-General. Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan was appointed to the post of of saw the disbanding of the, the containment of Afghan Mujahideen, as well as the construction of nuclear test sites in the. Zia's tenure saw the influx of heroin, sophisticated weaponry, and countless refugees in from neighbouring. Law and order deterioration was worse after he appointed Mr. Junejo as Prime minister in 1985. The government did not locate evidence of Zia having a relationship in the heroin trade, but has been considered.
Zia benefited from the extremely capable martial law administrators who previously had worked with the military governments of former president and in the 1960s. One of the notable officers that had worked with him were General,, and Admiral,. Both were noted by Western governments as highly capable and had wide experience from the military government of the and remained General Zia' confidential members. Both Admiral Sharif and General Arif handled the matters efficiently if the matters were out of control by Zia.
In 1979, Zia influenced the Navy's Promotion Board several times after he succeeded first in the appointment of Admiral as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979, and Admiral, also chief of naval staff, in 1983. On his request, then-President Fazal Illahi approved the appointment of General as Chief of Air Staff and following President's resignation, Zia appointed Shamim as the Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrator.
In the matters of serious national security, General Zia had taken the chief of air staff and chief of naval staff in confidence after he discussed the matters with the respected chiefs of Staff. Zia's appointment in inter-services were highly crucial for his military government and pre-emptive measure to ensure the continuous loyalty of Navy and Air Force to himself and his new military government.
Reign as President of Pakistan [ ] Assumption of the post of President of Pakistan [ ]. General Zia-ul-Haq during a meeting with United States dignitaries Despite the dismissal of most of the Bhutto government, President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry was persuaded to continue in office as a. After completing his term, and despite Zia's insistence to accept an extension as President, Chaudhry resigned, and Zia took the office of President of Pakistan on 16 September 1978. Thus his position was cemented as the undisputed ruler of the country.
Over the next six years, Zia issued several decrees which amended the constitution and greatly expanded his power. Most significantly, the Revival of Constitution of 1973 Order granted Zia the power to dissolve the National Assembly virtually at will. The Military Government of General Zia-ul-Haq Presidential cabinet Officer holder Term General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq 1978–1988 1985–1988 1977–1982 1982–1992 Dr.
1977–1985 1985–1988, 1977–1988 Inamul Haq Khan 1977–1978 1978–1984 1984–1985 1985–1987 1987–1988 Ghulam Jilani Khan Rahim Khan 1977–1980 1980–1988 1977–1983 1983–1988 1977–1988 1977–1988 1977–1988 1980–1988 1986–1988 1983–1988 1983–1988. Main articles:,, and Although ostensibly only holding office until free elections could be held, General Zia, like the previous military governments, disproved of the lack of discipline and orderliness that often accompanies multiparty '.' He preferred a 'presidential' form of government and a system of decision making by technical experts, or '.
His first replacement for the parliament or National Assembly was a Majlis-e-Shoora, or 'consultative council.' After banning all political parties in 1979 he disbanded and at the end of 1981 set up the majlis, which was to act as a sort of board of advisors to the President and assist with the process of Islamization. The 350 members of the Shoora were to be nominated by the President and possessed only the power to consult with him, and in reality served only to endorse decisions already taken by the government.
Most members of the Shoora were intellectuals,,, journalists, economists, and professionals in different fields. [ ] Zia's parliament and his military government reflect the idea of 'military-bureaucratic technocracy' (MBT) where professionals, engineers, and high-profile military officers were initially part of his military government. His antipathy for the politicians led the promotion of bureaucratic-technocracy which was seen a strong weapon of countering the politicians and their political strongholds. [ ] Senior statesman and technocrats were included physicist-turned diplomat, jurist, corporate leader, economist, and senior statesman,, and chemist-turned diplomat were a few of the leading technocratic figures in his military government.
Referendum of 1984 [ ] After Bhutto's execution, momentum to hold elections began to mount both internationally and within Pakistan. But before handing over power to elected representatives, Zia-ul-Haq attempted to secure his position as the head of state. A was held on 19 December 1984 with the option being to elect or reject the General as the future President, the wording of the referendum making a vote against Zia appear to be a vote against Islam.
According to official figures 95% of votes were cast in favour of Zia, however only 10% of the electorate participated in the referendum. 1985 elections and constitutional amendments [ ]. Main articles: and After holding the, Zia succumbed to international pressure and gave permission to to hold but without political parties in February 1985. Most of the decided to the elections but election results showed that many victors belonged to one party or the other. Critics complained that ethnic and sectarian mobilisation filled the void left by banning political parties (or making elections 'non-partisan'), to the detriment of national integration. The General worked to give himself the power to dismiss the Prime Minister dissolve the National Assembly, appoint provincial governors and the chief of the armed forces. His prime minister was known as unassuming and soft-spoken but was a Sindhi.
Before handing over the power to the new government and lifting the martial law, Zia got the new legislature to retroactively accept all of Zia's actions of the past eight years, including his coup of 1977. [ ] He also managed to get several amendments passed, most notably the, which granted ' s' to the president to dissolve the Parliament. However, this amendment considerably reduced the power he'd previously granted himself to dissolve the legislature, at least on paper. The text of the amendment permitted Zia to dissolve the Parliament only if the government had been toppled by a vote of no confidence and it was obvious that no one could form a government or the government could not function in a constitutional manner. Economic policy [ ]. See also: In general Zia gave economic development and policy a fairly low priority (aside from Islamization) and delegating its management to technocrats such as Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Aftab Qazi and Vaseem Jaffrey. However, between 1977 and 1986, the country experienced an average annual growth in the GNP of 6.8%—the highest in the world at that time—thanks in large part to remittances from the overseas workers, rather than government policy.
The first year of Zia's government coincided with a dramatic rise in remittances, which totalled $3.2 billion/year for most of the 1980s, accounted for 10 percent of Pakistans's GDP; 45 percent of its current account receipts, and 40 percent of total foreign exchange earnings. By the time General Zia had initiated the coup against Prime Minister, the economic cycle process of program was completed. The socialist orientation and nationalisation program was slowly reversed; the idea of was heavily favoured by President Zia-ul-Haq to direct the authoritarianism in the nationalised industries.
One of his well-known and earliest initiatives were aimed to the which featured the Interest-free. No actions towards privatising the industries were ordered by President Zia; only three steel mill industries were returned to its previous owners. By the end of 1987, the had begun studying the process of engaging the gradual privatisation and economic liberalisation. Soviet-Afghan War and Strategic initiatives [ ] Soviet invasion and Soviet-Afghan War [ ].
Main article: On 25 December 1979, the (USSR). Following this invasion, Zia chaired a meeting and was asked by several cabinet members to refrain from interfering in the war, owing to the vastly superior military power of the USSR Zia, however, was ideologically opposed to the idea of communism taking over a neighbouring country, supported by the fear of Soviet advancement into Pakistan, particularly Balochistan, in search of warm waters, and made no secret about his intentions of monetarily and militarily aiding the Afghan resistance (the Mujahideen) with major assistance from the United States. During this meeting, the of the (ISI) then-Lieutenant-General advocated for a covert operation in Afghanistan by arming Islamic extremists. During this meeting, General Rahman was heard saying: ' Kabul must burn! Kabul must burn!' , and mastered the idea of.
After this meeting, Zia authorised this operation under General Rahman, and it was later merged with, a programme funded by the United States and the (CIA). In November 1982, Zia travelled to Moscow to attend the, the late. Soviet Foreign Minister and new Secretary General met with Zia there. Andropov expressed indignation over Pakistan's support of the Afghan resistance against the Soviet Union and her satellite state,.
Zia took his hand and assured him, 'General Secretary, believe me, Pakistan wants nothing but very good relations with the Soviet Union'. According to Gromyko, Zia's sincerity convinced them, but Zia's actions didn't live up to his words. Zia reversed many of Bhutto's foreign policy initiatives by first establishing stronger links with the United States, Japan, and the Western world. Zia broken off relations with the and became his major economic policy.
US politician claims that Zia directly dealt with the, working to build covert relations with them, allowing the country to actively participate in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Helped by ISI, the channelled Soviet reversed engineered weapons to Afghanistan. In Wilson's own word, Zia is reported to have remarked to the Israeli intelligence service: 'Just don't put any stars of David on the boxes'. Consolidation of atomic bomb programme [ ] One of the earliest initiatives taken by Zia in 1977, was to militarise the programme which was founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1972.
During the first stages, the programme was under the control of Bhutto and the, under Science Advisor Dr., who was heading the civilian committee that supervised the construction of the facilities and laboratories. This atomic bomb project had no boundaries with and Dr. Leading their efforts separately and reported to Bhutto and his science adviser Dr. Hassan who had little interest in the atomic bomb project. Major-General, an engineering officer, had little role in the atomic project; Zia responded by taking over the programme under military control and disbanded the civilian directorate when he ordered the arrest of Hassan. This whole giant was transferred into the administrative hands of Major-General Akbar who was soon made the Lieutenant-General and of the to deal with the authorities whose co-operation was required.
Akbar consolidated the entire project by placing the scientific research under military control, setting boundaries and goals. Akbar proved to be an extremely capable officer in the matters of science and technology when he aggressively led the development of nuclear weapons under Munir Ahmad Khan and Abdul Qadeer Khan in a matter of five years. By the time, Zia assumed control, the research facilities became fully functional and 90% of the work on atom bomb project was completed. Both the (PAEC) and the (KRL) had built the extensive research infrastructure started by Bhutto. Akbar's office was shifted to Army Combatant General Headquarters (GHQ) and Akbar guided Zia on key matters of nuclear science and atomic bomb production. He became the first engineering officer to have acknowledge Zia about the success of this energy project into a fully matured programme.
On the recommendation of Akbar, Zia approved the appointment of Munir Ahmad Khan as the scientific director of the atomic bomb project, as Zia was convinced by Akbar that civilian scientists under Munir Khan's directorship were at their best to counter international pressure. This was proved when the PAEC conducted the cold-fission test of a fission device, codename on 11 March 1983 at the, under the leadership of weapon-testing laboratory's director Dr..
Lieutenant-General Zahid Akbar went to GHQ and notified Zia about the success of this test. The PAEC responded by conducting several cold-tests throughout the 1980s, a policy also continued by Benazir Bhutto in the 1990s. According to the reference in the book, ' Eating Grass', Zia was so deeply convinced of the infiltration of Western and American moles and spies into the project, that he extended his role in the atomic bomb, which reflected extreme ', in both his personal and professional life. He virtually had PAEC and KRL separated from each other and made critical administrative decisions rather than putting scientists in charge of the aspects of the atomic programmes. His actions spurred innovation in the atomic bomb project and an intense secrecy and security culture permeated PAEC and KRL. Nuclear diplomacy [ ] Unlike Bhutto, who faced rogue criticism and a heated diplomatic war with the United States throughout the 1970s, Zia took different diplomatic approaches to counter the international pressure.
From 1979 to 1983, the country was made a subject of attack by international organisation for not signing the (NPT); Zia deftly neutralised international pressure by tagging Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme to the nuclear designs of the neighbouring. Zia, with the help of Munir Ahmad Khan and,, drew a five-point proposal as a practical rejoinder to world pressure on Pakistan to sign the NPT; the points including the renouncing of the use of nuclear weapons. “ (sic).Either General Zia did not know the facts about country's. Or General Zia was the 'most superb and patriotic liar I have ever met.' ” —, 1981, Following the success of — in which an strike took place to destroy the in 1981— suspicion grew in Pakistan that the had similar plans for Pakistan. In a private meeting with General, then-, Zia had notified General Shamim that the Indian Air Force had plans to infiltrate Pakistan's nuclear energy project, citing solid evidence.
Shamim felt that the Air Force was unable to divert such attacks, therefore, he advised Zia to use diplomacy through Munir Ahmad Khan to divert the attacks. At Vienna, Munir Ahmad Khan met with Indian physicist and notified him that such an attack would provoke a nuclear war between the two countries.
In the meantime, Shamim decided to start the programme to acquire the and jets for the. Shamim launched - a counter operation that thwarted the Israeli Air Force attempt to sabotage Pakistan's nuclear energy project— forced Indian Premier to held talks with Pakistan on nuclear issues and directed a high delegation to Pakistan where both countries pledged not to assist or attack each other's facilities. In 1985, following the induction of the F-16 Falcons and A-5 Fantons, Shamim commissioned the to protect and battle the weapons of mass destruction. In 1977, Zia ultimately adopted the policy of ' to the atomic bomb programmes. This policy of nuclear ambiguity was adopted after witnessing the success of and on multiple occasions Zia broke his words and promises concerning the nature of the country's atomic bomb project. On nuclear policy issues, Zia deliberately misguided the United States and concealed classified information from the outside world. The United States trusted Zia's sincerity and his promises made to the United States; Zia gave assurances to the United States not to produce and (HEU) above a 5% level.
However, the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Vernon Walter, confronted Zia on his secret trip to Pakistan in October 1981. Confronted with the evidence, Zia acknowledged that the information 'must be true,' but then denied everything, leading Walters to conclude that: 'either Zia 'did not know the facts' or was the 'most superb and patriotic liar I have ever met.' Nuclear proliferation [ ] Soon after the coup, the clandestine nuclear energy project was no longer a secret to the outside world. Part of his strategy was the promotion of in anti-western states (such as, Iran, and communist ) to aid their own nuclear ambitions, to divert international attention which was difficult. In 1981, Zia contracted with China when he sent weapon-grade uranium to China and also built the centrifuge laboratory which increasingly enhanced the. This act encouraged Abdul Qadeer Khan, who allegedly tried to aid the but because were strained, Khan was warned of serious consequences. This policy envisaged that this would deflect international pressure onto these countries, and Pakistan would be spared the international community's wrath.
After Zia's death, his successor General, as Chief of Army Staff, encouraged Abdul Qadeer Khan and gave him a free hand to work with some like-minded nations such as North Korea, Iran and which also wanted to pursue their nuclear ambitions for a variety of reasons. In 2004, Abdul Khan's dismissal from the nuclear weapons programme was considered a face saving exercise by the Pakistan Armed Forces and political establishment under the then Chief of Army Staff and President General. Zia's nuclear proliferation policy had a deep impact on the world, especially anti-western states, most nominally North Korea and Iran. In the 2000s (decade), North Korea would soon follow the same suit after it was targeted by the international community for its on-going. In the 2000s (decade), North Korea attempted to aid the and in the 1990s. The North Korean connection to the Syrian nuclear programme was exposed in 2007 by Israel in its successful strategic operation,, which resulted in them sabotaging the Syrian nuclear programme as well as the deaths of 10 senior North-Korean scientists who were aiding the nuclear program.
Expansion [ ] Even though Zia had removed the Bhutto sentiment in the nuclear energy project, Zia did not completely disband Bhutto's policy on nuclear weapons. After the retirement of Zahid Ali Akbar, Zia transferred control of the nuclear weapons programme to Bhutto's close aide Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Soon, Zia promoted Khan as the technical director of the entire programme as well as appointing Khan as his Science Adviser. With the support of handpicked civilian Prime Minister, Zia sanctioned the launch of the 50 (MW) heavy water plutonium production reactor, known as, at in 1985. Zia also took initiatives to launched the space projects as spin-off to nuclear project.
Zia appointed nuclear engineer as the Administrator of the. Zia also launched the work on the country's first satellite,, a military satellite. In 1987, Zia launched the clandestine aerospace project, the under General in 1985, and later under Lieutenant-General in 1987. International standing enhancement and resumption of aid [ ] Zia's international standing greatly rose after his declaration to fight the Soviet invaders. Took a much more positive turn. US President and his Secretary of State,, cut off US aid to Pakistan on the grounds that Pakistan had not made sufficient progress on the nuclear issue.
Then, on 25 December 1979, the Soviets invaded Afghanistan, and Carter offered Pakistan $325 million in aid over three years. Zia rejected this as 'peanuts.' Carter also signed the finding in 1980 that allowed less than $50 million a year to go to the Mujahideen. After came to office, defeating Carter for the US Presidency in 1980, all this changed, due to President Reagan's new priorities and the unlikely and remarkably effective effort by Congressman aided by, and CIA Afghan Desk Chief to increase the funding for.
Aid to the Afghan resistance, and to Pakistan, increased substantially, finally reaching $1 billion. The United States, faced with a rival superpower looking as if it were to create another Communist bloc, now engaged Zia to fight a US-aided in Afghanistan against the Soviets. Fighting the war by proxy [ ] Zia now found himself in a position to demand billions of dollars in aid for the from the Western states, famously dismissing a United States proposed $325 million aid package as 'peanuts'. Pakistan's and now became actively involved in the conflict, and in co-operation with the Central Intelligence Agency and the supported the armed struggle against the Soviets. In 1981, Ronald Reagan succeeded Jimmy Carter as President of the United States. Reagan was completely against the Soviet Union and its, dubbing it 'the '. Reagan now increased financial aid heading for Pakistan.
In 1981, the Reagan Administration sent the first of 40 to the Pakistanis. But the Soviets kept control of the Afghan skies until the mujahideen received in 1986. From that moment on, the mujahideen's strategic position steadily improved. The Soviets declared a policy of national reconciliation.
In January they announced that a Soviet withdrawal was no longer linked to the makeup of the Afghan government remaining behind. Pakistan, with the massive extra-governmental and covert backing from the largest operation ever mounted by the CIA and financial support of, therefore, played a large part in the eventual withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan in 1988. The war legacy [ ] The rise of the illicit drug trade and its spread through Pakistan to the rest of the world increased tremendously during the Soviet-Afghan war. Afghanistan's drug industry began to take off after the Soviet invasion in 1979. Desperate for cash with which to buy weapons, various elements in the anti-Communist resistance turned to the drug trade. This was tolerated if not condoned by their American sponsors such as the CIA.
'Sharization' of Pakistan [ ]. Main article: The 'primary' policy, or 'centerpiece' of Zia's government was 'Sharization' or 'Islamization'. In 1977, prior to the coup, the drinking and selling of wine by Muslims, along with nightclubs, and horse racing was banned by Prime Minister Bhutto in an effort to stem the tide of street Islamization. Zia went much further, committing himself to enforce Nizam-e-Mustafa ('Rule of the prophet' or Islamic System, i.e. Establishing an Islamic state and law ), a significant turn from Pakistan's predominantly, inherited from the British. In his first televised speech to the country as head of state Zia declared that Pakistan which was created in the name of Islam will continue to survive only if it sticks to Islam.
That is why I consider the introduction of [an] Islamic system as an essential prerequisite for the country. In the past he complained, 'Many a ruler did what they pleased in the name of Islam.' Zia established 'Sharia Benches' in each High Court (later the Federal Sharia Court) to judge legal cases using the teachings of the Quran and the Sunna, and to bring Pakistan's legal statutes into alignment with Islamic doctrine. Zia bolstered the influence of the (Islamic clergy) and the Islamic parties. 10,000s of activists from the party were appointed to government posts to ensure the continuation of his agenda after his passing. Conservative (Islamic scholars) were added to the Council of Islamic Ideology. Islamisation was a sharp change from Bhutto's original philosophical rationale captured in the slogan, '.
In Zia's view, socialist economics and a secular-socialist orientation served only to upset Pakistan's natural order and weaken its moral fibre. General Zia defended his policies in an interview in 1979 given to British journalist Ian Stephens: The basis of Pakistan was Islam.
Muslims of the subcontinent are a separate culture. It was on the Two-Nation Theory that this part was carved out of the Subcontinent as Pakistan.
Bhutto's way of flourishing in this Society was by eroding its moral fiber. By pitching students against teachers, children against their parents, landlord against tenants, workers against mill owners. [Pakistan has economic difficulties] because Pakistanis have been made to believe that one can earn without working. We are going back to Islam not by choice but by the force of circumstances.
It is not I or my government that is imposing Islam. It was what 99 percent of people wanted; the street violence against Bhutto reflected the people's desire. — General Zia-ul-Haq, [ ] How much of Zia's motivation came from piety and how much from political calculation is disputed. One author points out that Zia was conspicuously silent on the dispute between the heterodox Zikri and the 'Ulama in Balochistan where he needed stability. Secular and leftist forces accused Zia of manipulating Islam for political ends. According to Nusrat Bhutto, former First Lady of Pakistan: The.
Horrors of 1971 war. Are (still) alive and vivid in the hearts and the minds of people of [Pakistan].Therefore, General Zia insanely. To ensure the survival of his own regime. — Nusrat Bhutto, How much success Zia had using state-sponsored Islamisation to strengthen national cohesion is also disputed.
Religious riots broke out in 1983 and 1984. Sectarian divisions between and worsened over the issue of the 1979 ordinance, but differences in jurisprudence also arose in marriage and divorce, inheritance and wills and imposition of hadd punishments. Among Sunni Muslims, and also had disputes. Zia favoured Deobandi doctrine and the Sufi of (who were Barelvi) joined the anti-Zia.
Hudood Ordinance [ ]. Main article: In one of his first and most controversial measures to Islamize Pakistani society was the replacement of parts of the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) with the 1979 '.' (Hudood meaning limits or restrictions, as in limits of acceptable behaviour in Islamic law.) The Ordinance added new criminal offences of and to Pakistani law, and new punishments of,, and. For theft or robbery, the PPC punishments of imprisonment or fine, or both, were replaced by amputation of the right hand of the offender for theft, and amputation of the right hand and left foot for robbery. For (extramarital sex) the provisions relating to adultery were replaced by the Ordinance with punishments of flogged 100 lashes for those unmarried offenders, and for married offenders. All these punishments were dependent on proof required for hadd being met.
In practice the Hudd requirement—four Muslim men of good repute testifying as witness to the crime—was seldom met. As of 2014, no one offenders have been stoned or had limbs amputated by the Pakistani judicial system. To be found guilty of theft, zina, or drinking alcohol by less strict tazir standards—where the punishment was flogging and/or imprisonment—was common, and there have been many floggings. More worrisome for human rights and women's rights advocates, lawyers and politicians was the incarceration of thousands of rape victims on charges of zina. The onus of providing proof in a rape case rests with the woman herself. Uncorroborated testimony by women was inadmissible in hudood crimes.
If the victim/accuser was unable to prove her allegation, bringing the case to court was considered equivalent to a confession of sexual intercourse outside of lawful marriage. Despite this the ordinance remained in force until the was passed in 2006. Although the punishments were imposed, the due process, witnesses, law of evidence, and prosecution system remained Anglo-Saxon. The hybridisation of Pakistan penal code with Islamic laws was difficult because of the difference in the underlying logic of the two legal systems.
PPC was kingly law, Haddood is a religious and community-based law. Other sharia laws [ ] Under Zia, the order for women to cover their heads while in public was implemented in public schools, colleges and state television.
Women's participation in sports and the performing arts was severely restricted. Following Sharia law, women's legal testimony was given half the weight of a man's, according to critics.
Unlike men, women entering into legal contracts were required to have their signature witness by another person. In 1980 the 'Zakat and Ushr Ordinance, 1980' was implemented. The measure called for a 2.5% annual deduction from personal bank accounts on the first day of, with Zia stating that the revenues would be used for poverty relief. Zakat committees were established to oversee distribution of the funds. In 1981 interest payments were replaced by 'profit and loss' accounts (though profit was thought to be simply interest by another name). Textbooks were overhauled to remove un-Islamic material, and un-Islamic books were removed from libraries. Eating and drinking during Ramadan was outlawed, attempts were made to enforce praying of five times a day.
Blasphemy ordinances [ ] To outlaw, the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) were amended through ordinances in 1980, 1982 and 1986. The 1980 law prohibited derogatory remarks against Islamic personages, and carried a three-year prison sentence. In 1982 the small religious minority were prohibited from saying or implying they were Muslims. In 1986 declaring anything implying disrespect to the, (family members of Muhammad), (companions of Muhammad) or (Islamic symbols) was made a, punishable with imprisonment or fine, or both.
Madrassa Expansions [ ] Traditional religious in Pakistan received state sponsorship for the first time, under the General Zia-ul-Haq's administration, Their number grew from 893 to 2,801. Most were in doctrinal orientation, while one quarter of them were. They received funding from Zakat councils and provided free religious training, room and board to impoverished Pakistanis. The schools, which banned televisions and radios, have been criticised by authors for stoking sectarian hatred both between Muslim sects and against non-Muslims. Cultural policies [ ]. Main article: In a 1979 address to the nation, Zia decried the and music in the country. Soon afterwards,, the national television network ceased playing music videos and only patriotic songs were broadcast.
New taxes were levied on the and most of the cinemas in Lahore were shut down. New were introduced, further decreasing cinema attendances. This was despite strong support from the largest Western country, the United States, and warm meetings between Zia and President. It was under Zia and the economic prosperity of his era that the country's urban middle and lower-middle-classes expanded and Western wear and hairstyle spread in popularity, and rock music bands gained momentum, according to leftist cultural critic.
Welfare of the people with disabilities [ ] During his tenure, he oversaw passing of an ordinance for the welfare of people with disabilities. The ordinance is called 'The Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981' and it was passed into law on 29 December 1981. It provides the measures for the employment, rehabilitation and welfare of the people with disabilities.
Dismissal of the Junejo government and call for new elections [ ] As time passed, the legislature wanted to have more freedom and power and by the beginning of 1988, rumours about the differences between Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo and Zia were rife. It is said by some that Zia-Junejo rift was encouraged by late Mahboob-ul-Haq and Junejo's insistence on signing Geneva pact without deciding the composition of next government of Afghanistan before Soviet withdrawal.
Junejo also gave Benazir a seat next to him in parleys before that. Junejo did not strengthen the Islamization drive and rather weakened it. His era led to serious disturbances in Karachi and ultimately Karachi went into the secular control of MQM from the clutches of Sunnis Jamaat-e-Islami.
Blast had irreversibly weakened Zia. On 29 May 1988, Zia dissolved the National Assembly and removed the Prime Minister under article 58(2)b of the amended Constitution. Apart from many other reasons, Prime Minister Junejo's decision to sign the against the wishes of Zia, and his open declarations of removing any military personnel found responsible for an explosion at a munitions dump at, on the outskirts of army headquarters in, earlier in the year, proved to be some of the major factors responsible for his removal. Zia promised to hold after the dismissal of Junejo government. He said that he would hold elections within the next 90 days. The late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's daughter had returned from earlier in 1986, and had announced that she would be contesting the elections.
With Bhutto's popularity somewhat growing, and a decrease in international aid following the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, Zia was in an increasingly difficult political situation. Main article: Zia died in a plane crash on 17 August 1988.
After witnessing a US tank demonstration in Bahawalpur, Zia had left the small town in the Punjab province by aircraft. The aircraft departed from and was expected to reach.
Shortly after a smooth, the lost contact with the aircraft. Witnesses who saw the plane in the air afterward claim it was flying erratically, then nosedived and exploded on impact. In addition to Zia, 31 others died in the plane crash, including chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General, close associate of Zia, Brigadier, the American Ambassador to Pakistan and General Herbert M. Wassom, the head of the US Military aid mission to Pakistan., the Senate chairman announced Zia's death on radio and TV. Conditions surrounding his death have given rise to many conspiracy theories.
There is speculation that the United States, India, the Soviet Union (in retaliation for Pakistani support of the mujahideen in ) or an alliance of them and internal groups within Zia's military were behind the incident. A board of inquiry was set up to investigate the crash. It concluded 'the most probable cause of the crash was a criminal act of sabotage perpetrated in the aircraft'. It also suggested that poisonous gases were released which incapacitated the passengers and crew, which would explain why no signal was given. There was also speculation into other facts involving the details of the investigation. A (black box) was not located after the crash and previous C-130 aircraft did have them installed. (retd), who was suspected by many circles within Pakistan and also by the then United States Ambassador to India, John Gunther Dean, for being extraordinarily insistent with President Zia to visit the demonstration, is considered to be the prime suspect in the incident.
He claimed later that reports of Israeli and Indian involvement in Zia's plane-crash were only speculations and he rejected the statement that was given by former president Ghulam Ishaq Khan that the presidential plane was blown up in the air. Durrani stated that Zia's plane was destroyed while landing. General, the head of Pakistan’s agency at the time, suggested that the United States might be responsible, even though the U.S.
Ambassador and were also killed. He told that the Pakistani President was killed in a conspiracy involving a 'foreign power'. Grave stone of Zia's grave His funeral was held on 19 August 1988 in. As a 21-gun salute of light artillery resounded off the lush Margalla Hills, nearly 1 million mourners joined in chants of 'Zia ul-Haq, you will live as long as the sun and moon remain above.'
His remains were laid to rest in a 4-by-10-foot dirt grave in front of the huge, modern that Zia had built as a symbol of Pakistani-Saudi friendship. Also in attendance was his successor President chiefs of staff of armed forces, chairman joint chiefs, and other high military and civil officials. Former US Secretary of State also laid a floral wreath at Zia's grave. Public image [ ] Even after his death, Zia-ul-Haq remained a highly polarizing and widely discussed figure in the country's intellectual and political circles.
Out of the, Zia-ul-Haq's legacy remains a most toxic, enduring, and tamper-proof legacy, according to the editorial written in. Historians and political scientists widely discussed and studied his policy making skills, some authors noting him as ' The Ringmaster', ' Master of Illusion' and ' Master Tactician'. However, his most remembered and enduring legacy was his indirect involvement and military strategies, by supporting the, against the 's. His reign also helped the conservatives to rise at the national politics against Benazir Bhutto. He is also noted as being one of Pakistan's most successful generals, placing the armed forces in charge of the country's affairs.
During his regime, western styles in hair, clothing, and music flooded the country. The 1980s gave birth to music, which expressed in the country. Removal of name from the Constitution of Pakistan [ ] With the passing of, General Zia's name was permanently deleted from the Constitution of Pakistan. Honours [ ] • Knight of the () Portrayals in popular culture [ ] Zia has been portrayed in English language popular culture a number of times including: • In the comic, it is implied that Zia's death was orchestrated by the same intelligence agency that ran from the show. • Zia was portrayed by Indian actor in the 2007 film.
• Zia is caricatured as one of the main protagonists in 's 2008 satirical novel which is loosely based around the events of his death. • Zia is the basis for the character General Hyder in 's novel (1983), which describes Zia's long-lasting relationship with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (here known as Iskander Harrapa), the president whom he would later overthrow and 'put to death'.
• Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's takeover of Pakistan and circumstances of his death were referenced in the novel. In a prelude to the fictional, it is implied that 'superman' arranged the crash. • The oppressive regime of Zia-ul-Haq and the execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was referenced in the book, a non-fiction memoir by Murtaza Bhutto's daughter.
See also [ ].
The year 1971 is etched in the collective consciousness of Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and Indians though to a lesser degree as a time of tragedy and upheaval. For Bangladeshis 1971 was the year of blood and tears, for Pakistanis deep humiliation, and for the Indians of triumph. Lt Col Sharif ul Haq Dalim has unraveled some of the rare facts about military operations in then East Pakistan and Liberation War for Bangladesh in his book Bangladesh: Untold Facts. There is a lot of literature on 1971 but, understandably enough, very little of it comes from Pakistan.
The liberation literature in Bangladesh rests upon the perception of victimhood to the point of denying resistance from Bengali armed fighters at places. The literature from India mostly accounts of military officers focuses on the 1971 war without taking account of the role of India in East Bengal from March 1971 onwards. It, too, misses out both on the perspectives of the Bengalis as well as the West Pakistanis. This book is the best account of 1971, so far.
The book is also eminently readable. For all these qualities the book is recommended strongly to scholars of South Asia and the interested layperson alike, which will remain required reading for times to come.
If file is deleted from your desired shared host first try checking different host by clicking on another file title. If you still have trouble downloading miroslav philharmonik fuller orchestra demo.mp3 hosted on 4shared.com 16.69 MB, Philharmonik 1.1 Sounds Updater.rar hosted on 4shared.com 1.55 MB, Miroslav Philharmonik.rar hosted on 4shared.com 14.56 MB, Miroslav Philharmonik.rar hosted on 4shared.com 14.56 MB, or any other file, post it in comments below and our support team or a community member will help you!
If no files were found or matches are not what you expected just use our request file feature. Registered users can also use our to download files directly from all file hosts where philharmonik was found on. Just paste the urls you'll find below and we'll download file for you!
If file you want to download is multipart you can use our to check whether multiple download links are still active before you start download. Our goal is to provide high-quality PDF documents, Mobile apps, video, TV streams, music, software or any other files uploaded on shared hosts for free! If you found that any of above philharmonik files may have been subject to copyright protection. Please use our page.
How to download philharmonik file to my device? Click download file button or Copy philharmonik URL which shown in textarea when you clicked file title, and paste it into your browsers address bar.
If file is multipart don't forget to check all parts before downloading! In next page click regular or free philharmonik download and wait certain amount of time (usually around 30 seconds) until download button will appead. Click it and That's it, you're done amigo! Philharmonik download will begin.
IK Multimedia Miroslav Philharmonik 1.1.2 + Sounds Updater| 7.1 GB Excellent library of orchestral instruments, second only to the massive product of East West. Unfortunately, I have a version without a sampler, and adapted for the IK Multimedia SampleTank (included).
IK Multimedia Miroslav Philharmonik Full. Nueva Parte==> IK Multimedia - Miroslav Philharmonik 2 SOUNDBANK. Shop for the IK Multimedia Miroslav Philharmonik Software Software Download and receive free shipping on your order and the guaranteed lowest price.
However, in the 'native' sampler changed only design - the same engine. Installation is simple - first install SampleTank, then copy files to a folder of images with the Library SampleTank (it you define when you install the first time ST), and then run the 1.1.2 Sounds Updater and use.
The set includes: Brass Choirs Elements Orchestral Sections Other Instruments Percussion Strings Woodwinds.
Listen and Download Thuggish Ruggish Bone mp3 - Up to date free Thuggish Ruggish Bone songs by Mp3bear1.me. Bone Thugs N Harmony Thuggish Ruggish Bone Mp3 Download. Free download Bone Thugs N Harmony Thuggish Ruggish Bone Mp3 Download mp3 for free. Bone Thugs - N - Harmony - Thuggish Ruggish Bone - Remix (Prod. Duration: 04:39 Size: 4.27 MB. Play Download. BONE THUGS N HARMONY X.
Aiohow.org is Media search engine and does not host any files, No media files are indexed hosted cached or stored on our server, They are located on soundcloud and Youtube, We only help you to search the link source to the other server. Aiohow.org is not responsible for third party website content. It is illegal for you to distribute copyrighted files without permission. The media files you download with aiohow.org must be for time shifting, personal, private, non commercial use only and remove the files after listening. If one of this file is your intelectual property (copyright infringement) or child pornography / immature sounds, please or email to info[at]aiohow.org to us.